These frameworks were identified as significant examples for this study
European Charter for Media Literacy
International, Sectoral (Schools, Colleges), National Audience | Broad audience including educational institutions, companies, government bodies, public
Common European Charter with a highly visible UK arm. Charter provides definitions of media literacy and a list of competencies providing a framework for a range of agencies. Aims to develop a common understanding and vision for media literacy.
UK Charter for Media Literacy
Media Literacy Task Force including representatives from UK Film Council, Channel 4, BFI , BBC, ITV, Skillset, Media Education Association , British Board of Film Classification, 2007
Sectoral (Schools, Colleges), National Audience | Broad audience including educational institutions, companies, government bodies, public
Two sets of signatories on both websites. UK signatories include a range of media bodies, schools and colleges. Recent initiative so too early to assess.
i-curriculum – a European framework for defining information skills and a curriculum appropriate for living and learning in the digital age (Primary, Secondary and vocational education)
http://promitheas.iacm.forth.gr/i-curriculum/overview.html Futurelab was UK partner 2004
International, Sectoral (Schools), National Audience | Primary, secondary and vocational education sectors policy makers, teachers and other educators and the producers of digital resources.
Digital literacy | Information Literacy
Outcomes of a European project including Germany, Greece, Romania, Spain and the UK. Outputs include a review of each country’s existing curricular frameworks, case studies, the framework and mapping of concepts of digital literacy onto the current and projected school practices. Interesting for its attention to Street’s (2004) ‘social literacies’ work and the development of a matrix which had three elements for each literacy/skill identified:
- operational curriculum (learning to use the tools effectively)
- integrating curriculum (technologies applied within the curriculum)
- transformational curriculum(changes to what we know) which is similar to the framework developed for this study.
Although a project that ended in 2005 the website still exists and the matrix is highly relevant to digital literacy discourse today for both its definitions, mapping and matrix. What is not evident though is evidence that people have taken on this framework and used it, either in a national context or by schools at an individual level.
Typology of knowledge, skills and competences: clarification of the concept and prototype
Centre for European Research on Employment and Human Resources Group, European Commission and CEDEFOP, 2005
International, Sectoral (Schools, Colleges, HE) Audience | Broad audience including educational institutions, companies, government bodies, public
Employability, Credit transfer, qualifications and competences
Research report which examined existing classifications and typologies of knowledge, skills and competencies across Europe and developed a prototype typology within the framework of European qualifications frameworks. Provides a very useful literature review and useful examples of framework use in different sectors in various countries. Describes the UK approach as functional.
Seven pillars of information literacy
http://www.sconul.ac.uk/groups/information_literacy/papers/Seven_pillars.html SCONUL Working Group on Information Literacy,2003
National, Professional, Sectoral (HE) Audience | Librarians
Established information literacy framework which was developed from earlier information skills work (1999) and updated in 2003. The framework is widely accepted by the UK academic library community and is used as the basis for many HE institutional approaches to support information literacy.
The framework is very similar to other national frameworks, including:
- The Seven Faces of Information Literacy (Australia) Bruce, C. (1997) http://sky.fit.qut.edu.au/~bruce/inflit/faces/faces1.ph
- Australian and New Zealand Information Literacy Framework: principles, standards and practice Bundy (2004) http://www.anziil.org/resources/Info%20lit%202nd%20edition.pdf
- Big six: Information & Technology Skills for Student Achievement (US) Eisenberg (2001) http://www.big6.com/2001/11/19/a-big6%e2%84%a2-skills-overview/
In 2006 a JISC funded project examined information skills frameworks in relation to the UK key skills framework and developed a further model for the post 16 sector. The Big Blue information literacy model (UK) 2006 http://www.library.mmu.ac.uk/bigblue/index.html Information literacy frameworks such as the seven pillars model are often viewed and implemented in a generic way and applied across a range of learning contexts by librarians.
This has generally kept ownership in the hands of librarians and kept information literacy support outside of the subject curricula, although several librarians have made efforts to work with academic teams and embed the literacies covered by this framework.
Information literacy frameworks have sometimes been marginalised in discussions around digital literacy, or academic literacy because they are viewed as being about library skills and not relevant to the subject curriculum, raising issues around understandings and perceptions amongst different practitioners. Many journal articles fail to acknowledge the rich literature and practice from the information literacy sector which reflects the divisions within institutions around planning and provision.
General Medical Council, 2003
Professional, National Audience | Medical schools
Academic literacy | Professional literacy
UK policy document to support medical Schools which includes a curriculum framework. This is an example of an imposed framework with supporting mechanisms to encourage adoption, testing and compliance. Medical graduates must meet the ‘principles of professional practice’ Good Medical Practice (2001) to ensure that the public receives an appropriate standard of practice.
Vocational and professional qualification frameworks will be the key driver for curriculum development and delivery, with the incorporation of other broader generic frameworks (such as information literacy, digital literacies) likely to be a secondary consideration.
For subjects without imposed standards of professional or vocational practice the supporting frameworks are likely to include a range of sources, such as professional bodies, institutional/school frameworks and other generic frameworks. It is difficult to find evidence of these frameworks and how they are used in practice as much of this activity is hidden within academic departments.
Glasgow Caledonian Academy , 2008
Institutional Audience | Learners and staff from central services and academic schools
Academic literacy | Information literacy | Digital Literacy | Employability skills
Several institutions are in the process of developing frameworks for academic, information and digital literacies. A significant issue in implementing such a framework is the extent to which the approach is collegiate or imposed. In order to be effective at an institution-wide level frameworks need to be embedded within key institutional strategies and requires a commitment to curriculum re-design and development.
The I-Learn Framework at Glasgow Caledonian University (GCU) is an example of this approach and faces challenges incorporating existing traditional practices with the newly articulated vision. A collegiate approach is central to the GCU strategy to ensure ‘buy-in’ and engagement with the framework. Pilots are currently under way to identify appropriate strategies for incorporating the framework into the curriculum.
The framework is informed by a range of existing frameworks both from within the UK, such as the SCONUL Seven pillars framework and the Skills for Scotland strategy, and also a range of GCU initiatives around self-regulated learning, employability and work-based learning. This pick and mix approach allows institutions to develop frameworks that are appropriate to their own contexts. The GCU has employability as a significant driver and the framework reflects this.
The framework for higher education qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland
Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education, 2007
National, Sectoral (HE) Audience | Academic staff
Academin Literacy | Professional Literacy
A broad qualifications framework, based on defined outcomes, not a credit framework. Institutions have choice in how to achieve the outcomes, but must be able to demonstrate how their curricula supports learner progression.
Links to other frameworks – such as Higher education credit framework for England: guidance on academic credit arrangements in higher education in England
QAA subject benchmark statements
Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education
National, Sectoral (HE), Professional, Subject Audience | Acadminc staff
Academic Literacy | Professional Literacy
In practice professional and vocational subject benchmarks identify literacies more specifically and are of key importance to academic practitioners in the field. See also the Tomorrows Doctors entry.
The QAA offers a range benchmarks according to level and specific needs:
- Honours degree subject benchmark statements
- Master’s level subject benchmark statements
- NHS/Department of Health subject benchmark statements
- Scottish subject benchmark statements
- The Communications, Media and Film and Cultural Studies benchmark, for example, provides very specific skills framework and outlines expectations of students studying an honours degree in this discipline.
Not all of these benchmarks will have been updated to take account of the need to incorporate or acknowledge the need for different/new skills for a digital age.
Curriculum for excellence
Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2007
National, Sectoral (Schools)
Academic Literacy | Communication skills
Curriculum for Excellence is a significant reform in Scottish education which describes the purposes of learning from 3 to 18 and entitlements for all learners.
This is another example of an imposed framework and there are significant supporting mechanisms to implement the initiative. Support includes training, guidance, curriculum development tools, and a range of resources. The framework acknowledges the extent of transformational change that institutions will need to undergo to implement this curriculum effectively and acknowledges the long term nature of such an undertaking.
CfE was developed through a long process involving teachers to ensure engagement and buy-in, and aims to build on and acknowledge good practice.
There are also moves to transform the national curriculum in England and Wales with hints of this acknowledging the impact of web.2 technologies and the skills required to utilise these effectively in a school context. http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2009/mar/25/primary-schools-twitter-curriculum