Relevant Frameworks - LLIDA
Introduction to the study describing terminology choices and the reasons behind the study.
digital literacy, learning literacy, learning, education, digital capabilities, skills
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Relevant Frameworks

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Learning to learn, metacognition

It is a key feature of the context for this study that ‘learning literacy’ or ‘learning to learn’, however contested these terms, mean something clearly different from academic literacy or study skills. This widening gap may be understood as the difference between formal and informal learning.

  • Owned/defined by: the learner
  • Learners addressed as: informal learner, self-regulated learner
  • Change dependent on learner perception of their own progression, differing needs at
  • Owned/defined by: the academy, especially academic development, learning development, study skills
  • Learners addressed as: students, prospective graduates in specific subjects
  • Slow changing due to cultural values being embedded in institutional, disciplinary/professional/vocational, and wider social practices and expectations
  • Ideologically not bound to any particular forms of representation (qualities of mind, habits of study etc) but in practice largely text-based.
  • Challenged by school-based education practices which tend to value study differently (bite sized vs extended tasks, bounded problems and information spaces, interdisciplinary project work
  • Challenged by popular practices around knowledge and representation e.g. cut and paste, sharing, informal spelling, essay banks, interdisciplinarity of applied knowledge practice

Some useful frameworks:

Cartwright, Kelly B. (Ed.) (2008). Literacy Processes: Cognitive Flexibility in Learning and Teaching. NY: The Guilford Press Cartwright, Kelly B. (Ed.) (2008). Literacy Processes: Cognitive Flexibility in Learning and Teaching. NY: The Guilford Press http://edrev.asu.edu/reviews/rev731.htm

Quintana, C et al. (2005) A Framework for Supporting Metacognitive Aspects of Online Inquiry Through Software-Based Scaffolding in Educational Psychologist, V4, N4. pp 235-244 http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a784751538~db=all

Spencer, S (200?) A Metacognitive Framework for Learning PhD http://coe.winthrop.edu/spencers/sue%27s%20office%20web%20page/metacognition/A%20Metacognitive%20Framework%20for%20Learning.htm

McGuinness, C (1999) From thinking skills to thinking classrooms, DfeS, 1999 http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/research/data/uploadfiles/RB115.doc.

Hoskins, B and Deakin Crick, R (2008) Learning to Learn and Civic Competences: different currencies or two sides of the same coin? Centre for Research on Lifelong Learning http://active-citizenship.jrc.it/Documents/learning%20to%20learn/Learning%20to%20Learn%20and%20Civic%20Competences%20FINAL%20final.pdf


Academic practice, study skills

Some useful frameworks:

i-curriculum – a European framework for defining information skills and a curriculum appropriate for living and learning in the digital age (Primary, Secondary and vocational education) http://promitheas.iacm.forth.gr/i-curriculum/overview.html

The framework for higher education qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland 2007 Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education http://www.qaa.ac.uk/academicinfrastructure/FHEQ/EWNI/default.asp#framework

Undergraduate levels framework (OU, UK) 2005 – Centre for Outcomes-Based Education http://www.open.ac.uk/cobe/docs/KnowAbout/FS4-LevelsFramework.pdf

OU Open Learn Learning framework http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/resource/view.php?id=188602

General Medical Council (2003) Tomorrows Doctors UK policy document to support medical Schools includes curriculum framework http://www.gmc-uk.org/education/undergraduate/undergraduate_policy/tomorrows_doctors.asp


Information literacy

  • Owned/defined by: the library
  • Learners addressed as: researchers, information users
  • Consciously slow-changing skills in a rapidly changing context.
  • Assert cultural values (evaluation, reflection and judgement, critical awareness, provenance of sources, evidence, method) against rapidly changing technical capabilities e.g. search engines, cataloguing and curatorial technologies, data mining and other research capabilities, textual analysis, semantic search capabilities etc)
  • Challenged by popular practices around knowledge and searching for knowledge, e.g. Google, Wikipedia as first ports of call. Also by open content.

Some useful frameworks

i-curriculum – a European framework for defining information skills and a curriculum appropriate for living and learning in the digital age (Primary, Secondary and vocational education) http://promitheas.iacm.forth.gr/i-curriculum/overview.html

Seven pillars of information literacy (UK) SCONUL 2003 http://www.sconul.ac.uk/groups/information_literacy/papers/Seven_pillars.html

The Big Blue information literacy model (UK) 2006 http://www.library.mmu.ac.uk/bigblue/ppt/themodel4.ppthttp://www.library.mmu.ac.uk/bigblue/index.html

Australian and New Zealand Information Literacy Framework: principles, standards and practice 2004 http://www.anziil.org/resources/Info%20lit%202nd%20edition.pdf

Eisenberg (2001) Big six: Information & Technology Skills for Student Achievement (US) http://www.big6.com/2001/11/19/a-big6%e2%84%a2-skills-overview/

Bruce, C. (1997)The Seven Faces of Information Literacy (Australia) Bruce 1997 http://sky.fit.qut.edu.au/~bruce/inflit/faces/faces1.php


Communication and collaboration skills

  • Owned by: contested (some professions require particular forms of communication; some overlap with use of digital tools below)
  • Learners addressed as: communicators, social participants
  • Fairly rapidly changing to keep pace with emerging new technologies, networks, devices and forms of telepresence. Again some values are asserted across communicational media, e.g. in acceptable use policies, netiquette etc: listening, turn-taking, facilitation, mediation, respect.
  • Challenged by popular practices of highly informal communication including flaming, dissing, etc. Also challenged by proliferation of communication channels – making it difficult for institutions/tutors to control communications around study.

Some useful frameworks

i-curriculum – a European framework for defining information skills and a curriculum appropriate for living and learning in the digital age (Primary, Secondary and vocational education) http://promitheas.iacm.forth.gr/i-curriculum/overview.html

The NHS Knowledge and Skills Framework (NHS KSF) (2004) Dept. of Health. Appendix 2 Core Dimension 1 : Communication http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4090843?IdcService=GET_FILE&dID=5786&Rendition=Web


Media literacy (also ‘visual’ and ‘audio’ and ‘video’ literacies)

  • Owned by: contested (some located in specialist subject areas e.g. film, photography, cultural studies, media studies etc)
  • Learners addressed as: consumers and producers of messages in a range of media
  • Moderately fast-changing to keep pace with emergence of new media, e.g. gaming, media sharing sites. But like information literacies, assert value of some traditional academic practices e.g. critique, review, scepticism, originality and creativity, as well as some new values – currency, cool, reputation, point of view, audience, montage, cross-cut perspectives
  • Challenged by popular practices of editing, re-editing, distributed creativity; supported by popular practices of rating, reviewing, democratisation of creative productivity, illegal content

Some useful frameworks

European Charter for Media Literacy 2006 http://www.euromedialiteracy.eu/index.php

UK Charter for Media Literacy (2006) http://www.medialiteracy.org.uk/

Media literacy (Ofcom – UK ) 2007 – Office of Communications http://www.ofcom.org.uk/advice/media_literacy/


 ICT/digital/computer literacy

  • Owned by: technology developers, designers and support staff
  • Learners addressed as: technology users
  • Very rapidly changing skill-set, requiring constant updating. Skills often acquired from more competent peers, though sometimes through institutional provision. Agile adopters will use help menus, online discussion forums and user groups, trial and error.
  • Different times of their lives – may have periods of re-learning, new learning
  • Challenged by teachers expectations of learner understanding and perceptions of their own learning capacity
  • Challenged by learner expectations of need and capacity to adapt to re-learning or new learning

Some useful frameworks

DigEuLit: European Framework for Digital Literacy (EFDL) 2005 – a definition, generic structure, and set of tools which will enable educators, trainers and learners to share an understanding of what constitutes digital literacy and how it can be mapped into European educational practice http://www.elearningeuropa.info/directory/index.php?page=doc&doc_id=6973&doclng=6 can’t use as never materialised – project disbanded

i2010 – (EU) 2007 initiative equipping people with ICT skills looking at eCompetancy and a pending Digital Literacy Review http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/einclusion/policy/competences/index_en.htm

i-curriculum – a European framework for defining information skills and a curriculum appropriate for living and learning in the digital age (Primary, Secondary and vocational education) http://promitheas.iacm.forth.gr/i-curriculum/overview.html

Digital transformation: a framework for ITC literacy 2002 – International ICT Literacy Panel http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/Information_and_Communication_Technology_Literacy/ictreport.pdf


Employability

Employability encompasses all or many of the other skills but is included here as a distinctive framework for theorising about and organising these skills, i.e. the production of the learner as a competent worker/employee. Component skills are those distinctive to this framework: the CBI is also concerned with literacy, numeracy, communication, ICT.

Student Employability Profiles, 2004/5, Higher Education Academy, ESECT and Council for Industry and Higher Education Includes a glossary of competencies http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/Employability/employability542

The employability challenge: full report, Appendix C UK Commission for Employability and Skills (2009) http://www.ukces.org.uk/pdf/8080-UKCES-Employability%20ChallengeFinal.pdf

Employability skills map, University of Kent. http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/skillsmap.htm (2008)

Winterton, J et al. (2005) Typology of knowledge, skills and competences: clarification of the concept and prototype. Centre for European Research on Employment and Human Resources Groupe ESC Toulouse Research report elaborated on behalf of Cedefop/Thessaloniki. (CEDEFOP Project No RP/B/BS/Credit Transfer/005/04) http://www.ecotec.com/europeaninventory/publications/method/CEDEFOP_typology.pdf


Citizenship

Digital citizenship encompasses many other skills but is included as a distinctive framework for theorising about and organising these skills, i.e. the production of the learner as a competent citizen or member of wider society

Citizenship For 16-19 Year Olds In Education And Training, FEFC, 2000 http://www.qca.org.uk/qca_4858.aspx

General information on QCA website http://www.qca.org.uk/qca_4855.aspx and Case studies http://www.qca.org.uk/qca_4865.aspx

Hoskins, B and Deakin Crick, R (2008) Learning to Learn and Civic Competences: different currencies or two sides of the same coin? Centre for Research on Lifelong Learning http://active-citizenship.jrc.it/Documents/learning%20to%20learn/Learning%20to%20Learn%20and%20Civic%20Competences%20FINAL%20final.pdf

Mainguet, C and Baye, A. (2006) Defining a framework of indicators to measure the social outcomes of learning in Measuring the effects of education on health and civic engagement: proceedings of the Copenhagen Symposium OECD 2006 http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/15/20/37425733.pdf

de Weerd, M et al. (2005) Indicators for active citizenship and citizenship education: final report. European Commission Research report. http://ec.europa.eu/education/pdf/doc280_en.pdf


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Frameworks review